A Beginner’s Guide to Quantum Computing: Learn the Essentials in Simple Terms


In brief

Recent developments have revealed the potential for quantum computing to deliver business value by solving difficult problems in entirely new ways. Quantum computing is well-suited to solve optimization problems—sorting through vast potential solutions to arrive at the best decision. Enterprises that experiment and innovate now will be prepared to capitalize on the opportunities that the quantum revolution is bound to bring.

Quantum Computing Basics

As we know, classical computers rely on the ‘bit’ as the primary carrier of information. Each bit can be in one of 2 states — 0 or 1 — and classical computers use binary logic on groups of bits (think logic gates as examples) to perform computations and provide deterministic answers to problems. Quantum computers are explicitly designed to work using the principles of quantum mechanics, the mathematical formulation of the laws of quantum systems. The basic carrier of information is ‘qubit’ (atoms, ions, photons, etc.), each of which can be in multiple states, rather than just two in the case of classical bits. This along with other key concepts of quantum mechanics — superposition, entanglement and probabilistic estimations — make quantum computing radically different from classical computing.

The fifth generation

Many people believe that quantum computing is one of several technologies that will enable the fifth generation of computers. The innovation behind quantum computing lies in the way it takes advantage of certain phenomena that occur at the subatomic level.

In classical computing, a computer runs on bits that have a value of either 0 or 1. Quantum bits, or “qubits,” are similar, but they can also hold much more complex information, or even be negative values.
In a classical computer, bits are processed sequentially, similar to how a person would solve a math problem by hand. In quantum computation, qubits are entangled together, so changing the state of one qubit influences the state of others regardless of their physical distance. This allows quantum computers to intrinsically converge on the right answer to a problem very quickly.
In classical computing, only specifically defined results are available, inherently limited by algorithm design. Quantum answers are probabilistic, allowing the technology to consider multiple possibilities. Programs run problems multiple times, giving a sample of potential answers and increasing confidence in providing the best solution.

First generation computing

·        1940-1956

·        Vacuum Tubes

Second generation computing

·        1956-1964

·        Transistors

Third generation computing

·        1964-1971

·        Integrated Circuits

Fourth generation computing

·        1971- Present

·        Microprocessors

Fifth generation computing

·        Present & Beyond

·        Quantum Computers

Quantum Computing: Revolutionizing 9 Key Industries

Although the burgeoning technology will help to redefine on thousands of sectors, some sectors will have to change with time than others. To deal with it below we look at 9 areas where quantum computing has already started making waves.

1. Healthcare

Medical research and treatment modalities may be revolutionized by quantum computing. It can process large quantities of medical information efficiently which in turn will enable doctors to make precise diagnoses and render treatment plans suited to individualized needs.

2. Finance

It plays a vital role likely in the financial sector, in which quantum computing has the capabilities to optimize complex algorithms in risk assessment and also in trading strategies generating very fast precise paths.

3. Cybersecurity

Quantum computing is capable of handling immense amounts of data and making sophisticated calculations which can strengthen cybersecurity measures by improving encryption policies and establishing secure communication networks.

4. Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies

Quantum computing can also be a problem as well as an opportunity for the procession of blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies. Although it may also crack the current codes, the opening of the curtains for the new quantum-resistant cryptographic techniques is just inviting.

5. Artificial Intelligence

The harmony between quantum computing and AI has tipped off potential changes for machine learning algorithms, which prompts more developed robots that can tackle dynamic issues in a more exorbitant measure of mind-boggling capacity.

6. Logistics

Quantum computing has a potential to utilize in the optimization of supply chain management by analyzing huge volumes of data to minimize the smooth execution of logistics operations, lowering costs and chances to increase efficiency.

7. Manufacturing and Industrial Design

As for manufacturing and industrial design development, quantum computing can reshape the process optimization which results in quicker prototyping as well as more effective production approaches.

8. Agriculture

If constructed correctly from the onset, the application of a quantum computer will advance agricultural practices by critically analyzing soil data, weather patterns, and crop yields, and hence allowing the farmers to make realistic decisions based on data requirements in a bid to boost productivity.

9. National Security

At the level of national security, quantum computing has the ability to enhance the encryption methods and techniques of intelligence gathering thereby making the defence system stronger against cyber threats and adversaries.


“There’s magic at the intersection of quantum computing, Artificial Intelligence, and additive manufacturing.”

― Hendrith Vanlon Smith Jr, CEO of Mayflower-Plymouth

“With advanced quantum computational systems in place, we could have computed the COVID-19 vaccine within hours, if not minutes, of its discovery. Perhaps, any kind of life-threatening virus, since it is nothing more than a piece of code, will be completely preventable with the advances in quantum computing and computational biology. The question is, then, if we could eventually shield ourselves against the common viral micro-threat, what would a macro-threat of unknown nature mean for the human-machine civilization? We might soon need to decode another message from the transcendent realm edging us ever closer to the Cybernetic Singularity of some sort.”

― Alex M. Vikoulov, NOOGENESIS: Computational Biology

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)


  • In comparison to classical computing, what is quantum computing?

Quantum computing utilizes characteristics of quantum mechanics including superposition and entanglement, and thus achieves computations orders of magnitude faster than classical computers.

  • What is the scope of applications of the quantum computing?

Cryptography, optimization, drug discovery, materials science, and other areas where complex computations are needed offer opportunities for quantum computing.

  • Quantum computing is at the access of the general public?

Quantum computing is still at an embryonic stage but work is already going on to bring the essential quantum computing in the cloud to be accessed more easily and in the process of education.

  • The challenges are what does quantum computing have?

The major challenges faced by quantum computing include decoherence, error correction and scalability that demand innovative frameworks for solving these problems.

  •  As a matter of fact, what is the impact quantum computing of cybersecurity?

Quantum computing could fundamentally change cryptography since it could factorize large numbers quickly thus making all current cryptographic techniques vulnerable to quantum attacks.

  • Can quantum computing extensions be helpful in creating novel artificial general intelligence?

Quantum computing has huge potential to make ai more capable, thanks to faster optimization algorithms and better trained neural networks based on more complicated network topologies.


To adopt the transformative capacity of quantum computing is not separable from partnership, creative power, and the development-oriented intellectual. In the age of quantum, the vast array of possibilities that presents itself to us makes human solutions to problems the greatest gift coveted in our present world.




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